Genesis 1: 6

Verse 6

{Note: all brakets () inside other brackets [] are for vowels/niqud}

For Hebrew and Arabic, please read from the right to the left

א,ו ויאמר אלוהים, יהי רקיע בתוך המים, ויהי מבדיל, בין מים למים.

1- (He) instructs, orders

ויאמר

١يأمر

For further information, see chapter 1 VERSE 3 [ya:mir]
2-Elohim

אלוהים

٢الوهيم

As per chapter 1 Verse 1
3-Let there be / come

יהי

٣ياتي

As per Chapter 1 Verse 3

4- patch /

רקיע

٤رقيع / رُقعة

Note: {( ק) = (ق) = kh}  {(ע ) = (ع) = a } both of these sounds are non existent in Latin languages

We mean by [kh] here, the equivalent to (ק) = (ق) and not to the sound [k] which is very different and can impact the meaning and change it completely.

i = e for a short vowel, and i: for a long vowel (ee). / ( ــْ ) this indicates the absence of a vowel, in Arabic called sukun.

[ ‘  ] apostrophes indicate the necessity to stress on the syllable. e.g: [r(u) ק(a) ‘ע (a): ] 

Reminder: {Note: all brakets () inside other brackets [] are for vowels/niqud}

Phonic: [r(a) ( ק) (i):(ע )…].

Dictionary: Ductile or Sky. The dictionary doesn’t provide more clarification. This proves that maybe it’s not a used word in the modern Israeli language.

However, if we try to look into the origin by omitting some non substantial letters such as  ( י)[y] then we’ll find a possible root.

( רקע ) [r(a) ק (a) ע (a)] Noun: means background.

Verb: (רקע ) [r(a) ק (a) ע (a)] as a (פָּעַל )[فعل], = a verb, meaning to stamp (one’s foot), (metallurgy) to flatten, to hammer out.

My problem with this meaning is that it bears no connection with the biblical meaning of ‘sky’, ‘heavens’, etc. Although it constitute a written root, but the semantic root is lost here. Therefore, I believe that the true meaning of the verb (רקע ) is completely lost to the modern Hebrews.   So, let’s look into its more general Semitic root.

Root word: i – (ee)

[r(a) ק (i): ע] is grammatically a noun; the doer of the action of verb [r(a) ק (a): ע (a)].

So, the first root is the simple verb: ( רקע) [r(a) ק (a) ע (a)] = ( رَقَعَ). Looking into the classic dictionary of Ibn Mandhoor, this is the meaning of the word that existed at least between 500 and 1000 ac.

Verb:

1- to link between two things using fire (for metal) or stitches (for fabric).

2- to repair, to mend, to patch; to mend one’s relationship with God by repenting.

Noun 1:

1- single [r(a) ק (i): ע]( ــْ ) ]-  plural [a(a) r( ــْ ) ק(i)-ע(a)], [r(u) ק(a) ‘ע (a):..( ــْ ) ] or  [r(u) ק(a) ‘ע (a): .. ( un ) ]

this is an adjective meaning stupid, idiot, or shameless.

2- single [r(u) (ק) ( ــْ ) ( ע ) ( a ): ] or [r(u) (ק) ( ــْ ) ( ע ) ( a ): t (un) ]

a- a piece of something, especially in the following use: a piece of land, a piece of fabric or the mat of the game of chess.

b-something to be used to cover the tear or brokenness of something else; a patch.

c- a parchment used for writing.

d- in Kuran: it’s the 7th sky. In literature: it’s the sky in general because it’s seen as patched by stars and planets.

e- a circle, a space: he enlarged his circle of friends; circle = [r(u) (ק) ( ــْ ) ( ע ) ( a ): ]

f- used in the medical field in transplant of skin.

g- the sound of the arrow when it hits its target.

h- the name of a huge tree

Noun 2:- [El – a(a) r ( ــْ ) (ק) (a)  ( ע )   ( ــْ ) ]

1- In literature: it’s the sky in general because it’s seen as patched by stars and planets.

Verb   [a(a) r ( ــْ ) (ק) (a)  ( ע )   ( a ) ] fits a  patch in  the place of a hole. Repairs or mends.

  • to behave in a stupid or shamelss way.

http://www.almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar/الرقعة/

http://www.maajim.com/dictionary/رقيع

5-within

בתוך

٥  بداخل / في

( ך ) = [k] but in this word, it is pronounced like ( ח )

[b(e).t(u). ח]  = inside – within 

ב [b(e)] = in                                  תוך [t(u). ח] = with

The following finding may seem irrelevant to the meaning of this word, but it’s worth taking a quick look for an extended knowledge.

( וך )   = (dictionary it means) and about – in Morrocan Arabic, [wakha] means ok, agreed.

Similar phonetic words:

( אָח ) = brother, compatriot, etc.

6- the hot waters / the pigeons

המים

٦المايمالمياهجمع كلمة  اليم

( המים  ) = (  حمايم ) [ hamayim ]  ——   We mean by [h] here, the equivalent to (ה) = (ح) and not to the sound [h] (as in Harry) which is very different and can impact the meaning and change it completely.  There is no sound equivalent to (ה ) in Latin languages.

 ( מים  )   [ m(a)y(i)m  ]     = water

Semitic Root

Simple form

Verb 1 (   حَمَى/ يَحْمَى ) or   ( המי / יהמי  ) [ה(a).m(a):/ y(a)ה.m(a):]  means- to heat up to a boiling or burning point. 

Verb 2- (   حَمَّ/ يَحِمُّ ) or   ( המ / יהמ  ) [ה(a).m(a):/ y(a)ה (i).m(u):] for something: to burn or be destroyed by the heat/ God to will something to happen / 

Verb 3 – ( حُمَّ/ يُحَمُّ  )  [ה(u).m(a):/ y(u)ה (a).m(u):] or (   )  for someone; to be attacked by fever,  for summer; to get closer / for something; the be destined to happen.

Noun

1- Singular (  حُمَّة )  (   )  fever

2-  Sing and pl ( حَمَّة/حمام  )   geyser ; hot spring, especially the ones considered to be good for healing

3- Plural ( حِمَمٌ ) or (  حُمَم ) volcanic lava

4- [حَمَّام]    ( ה(a).mm(a):m] )   =  a place where people wash. A bathing place; a bathroom or a public bath.

5-  [حَمَام]    [hamam] and [yamam] two types of white pigeons. Plural is [( המים  ) = (  حمايم ) [ ה(a)m(a)y(i)m ] (the exact same word above)

Complex form 1:

Verb 1 ( أحَمَّ/يَحُمُّ  )  or (  [ a(a)ה(a)m(a):/  y(a)ה(u).m(u)] )  means  to bathe a child/ to become concerned about a matter,

Verb 2 ( استحم/يستحم  )  or (  [ is.t(a)ה(a)m(a):/  y(a)s.t(a)הi.m(u)] )  means to bathe, to have a bath.

Noun

1- ( حَمُو )  or  ( ה(a).m(u)] )  means father in law

2- ( حَميم )  or  ( ה(a).m(i):m] )  means a very close type of relationship.

3- ( استحمام )  or  ( ist(i)ה().m(a)m] )  means bathing

Comlex form 2

Verb 1: 1- ( حَامَ/ يَحُومُ )  or  ( ה(a).m(a)/ y(a)  ה(u).m(u) )  means to fly in circles around a point, like a carcass, etc. Or in a metaphoric sense, to keep going around an issue, etc.

Verb 2: Same phonic: to feel thirsty (especially for a child). To chase something, to seek it.

7- and comes (he)

ויהי

٧  و ياتي

See Verse 3 for more details

8- distinguishing, changing, preferring, replacing

מבדיל

٨  بدل / فضّل

The ( לְהַ  ) or ( לְ  ) [L(a)] is a colloquial way of identification instead of the more literary (El). It is used in Arabic to this day in all colloquial dialects.  It could also be the origin for the Latin article (la, le, les).

Phonic: [mov.deel] I don’t believe that the [v] variation sound of the letter (bet) was there in the ancient Hebrew language.  But even if it existed then, it might have existed like as an equivalent to [b] rather than alternative. This variation in pronouncing the letter [bet] could have been born from different dialects and did not effect the meaning of words. This might be similar to present day variation in the letter ( ג   ) [gimel] =  ( ج ) [jeem]  for example, with some regions pronouncing it (guim), or the letter ( ק  ) [khof] ( ق ) [khaf] with some pronouncing it (guh:) etc.

Therefore, it is my belief that all words which are pronounced with the variation [v], when compared to their Arabic Semitic cognates, they only make sense when the [v] sound is replaced by [b].

Definitions:

( מבדיל )  [mad.gh.eel] distinguishes, from the Hebrew verb: ( לְהַבְדִּיל )  which means:

1 To separate.  [quotations ]

2 To distinguish: to recognize or discern a difference, or to make a distinction.

Cognate, like in Arabic, the Hebrew linguists view the word as deriving from the verb: [afdhala], [yofdhil] or  [abdala], [yobdil]

non-finite forms • to-infinitive: לְהַבְדִּיל ( لفضيل) (this is a type of noun called [m(a)sd(a)r] (مصدر ) in Arabic which means source. The word ( לְהַבְדִּיל ( لفضيل) )  literally means the virtuous or virtue as it stands, whereas if a [t] was added from the front, this would change it to mean ‘to prefer’, preferring. 

• action noun: הַבְדָּלָה  ( افدلا)

finite forms singular plural
m. f. m. f.
past first הִבְדַּלְתִּי  (إفضلتي) הִבְדַּלְנוּ  (إفضلنُ)
second הִבְדַּלְתָּ (إفضلتَ) הִבְדַּלְתְּ הִבְדַּלְתֶּם (إفْضَلْتْ) הִבְדַּלְתֶּן (إفْضَلْتَن)
third    (إفضيل) הִבְדִּיל הִבְדִּילָה (إفضِلا) הִבְדִּילוּ (إفضِلُوا)
It could also mean: to remain as it is, or where it is or to go on about something, to dwell.
present מַבְדִּיל (مِفْضِيلْ) מַבְדִּילָה (مُفْضيلَ) מַבְדִּילִים מַבְדִּילוֹת (مُفْضِلوت)
future first אַבְדִּיל أفْضيل נַבְדִּיל  نفضيل (او نُفَضِّل)
second תַּבְדִּיל (تَفْضيل) תַּבְדִּילִי תַּבְדִּילוּ

תַּבְדֵּלְנָה

third יַבְדִּיל תַּבְדִּיל יַבְדִּילוּ

תַּבְדֵּלְנָה

imperative הַבְדֵּל הַבְדִּילִי הַבְדִּילוּ

(هفْضِلْن)  הַבְדֵּלְנָה

notes 1 Uncommon in Modern Hebrew.

Continue 8- distinguishing, changing, preferring, replacing

מבדיל

٨بدل / فضّل

So, we can conclude that the Semetic root to this Hebrew word could be [f(a)dd(a)l(a)] which means prefer or [f(a)dh(u)l(a)] which means becomes more virtuous in a moral sense or becomes better in a general sense.

—————————————————————

II- [b(a)d(a)l(a)], [y(u)b(a)d(i)l] or  [yubdil] = Two letters that may prove to be controversial.

1-( בְ ) where the sound [v] interpreted by modern Hebrew linguists is in fact the sound [B].

2- ( ד ) [D] this letter Is pronounced as it is [d].

non-finite forms

• to-infinitive: לְהַבְדִּיל (لبديل) (this is a type of noun called (مصدر ) in Arabic which means source. This word in Arabic means the alternative, whereas if a [t] was added from the front, this would change it to mean ‘the change’, the action of changing. 

• action noun: הַבְדָּלָה  ( ابدلا)

finite forms

singular

plural

m.

f.

m.

f.

past

first

הִבְדַּלְתִּי  (إبدلتي)

הִבְדַּלְנוּ  (إبدلنُ)

second

הִבְדַּלְתָּ (إبدلتَ)

הִבְדַּלְתְּ

הִבְדַּלְתֶּם (إبدلْتْ)

הִבְדַּלְתֶּן (إبدلْتَن)

third

   (إبديل) הִבְדִּיל

הִבְדִּילָה (إبدلا)

הִבְדִּילוּ (إبدلُوا)

present

מַבְדִּיל (مِبديلْ)

מַבְדִּילָה (مُبديلَ)

מַבְדִּילִים

מַבְדִּילוֹת (مُبدلوت)

future

first

אַבְדִּיל أبديل

נַבְדִּיל  نبديل (او نُبدل)

second

תַּבְדִּיל (تَبديل)

תַּבְדִּילִי

תַּבְדִּילוּ

תַּבְדֵּלְנָה

third

יַבְדִּיל

תַּבְדִּיל

יַבְדִּילוּ

תַּבְדֵּלְנָה

imperative

הַבְדֵּל

הַבְדִּילִי

הַבְדִּילוּ

(هبدلْن)  הַבְדֵּלְנָה

notes

1 Uncommon in Modern Hebrew.

8 Conclusion
In dictionary, the word ( לְהַבְדִּיל ) means to differentiate between something and another, to tell apart ; to distinguish ; to separate. 

In the first Arabic root; colloquial [l-fdhil]- literary [el-tafdhil] it means to prefer something over another. There is no source verb ( ) for becoming more virtuous.  One can easily see the link between differentiating something from another and setting it separate, and between preferring one thing over the other.  We usually set something apart either because we already prefer it or in order to enhance it and turn it into our number one choice. God is said to set to himself people and nations who He separates from other people and groups, to develop them and turn them into his number one person or nation.

In the second Arabic root colloquial [l-bd(i)l] – literary [[el-bd(i)l] = [el-t(a)bd(i)l]  you can see how hard for the tongue to pass from a non voweled [l] sound to a non voweled [t] sound. Therefore, I think [t] which is usually necessary for the infinitive (source), was eventually dropped from the verb for this reason.

This second Arabic root means to swap things around, or to put something instead of another, to substitute, to change and replace something by another.

I then look at the link between the two previous interpretations and this one to find again a contextual connection; a relationship of cause and effect. 

If someone separated something from something else and set it a part for himself either because it was already better or in order to make it better, then it is only logical for the person, to replace the mediocre thing with/by the best thing.  God sent the Hebrews after 40 years of purification to replace the Canaanites, with the intention to replace the older, mediocre ethics with a newer, better ones.

9- between

בין

٩بين

[been] ( بين ) a proposition

בֵּין  מילת יחס

between ; amongst ; בינינו – between you and me ;

מבין – an expression to indicate one or several of a number of items

מבין

להבין

verb to understand, comprehend; study; interpret

 

מבין

adj./noun expert, knowledgeable person, connoisseur, judge, perspicacious, comprehensive, discerning

prep. from, from amongst

10- water

מים

١٠  ماء

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/מים

Etymology

From Proto-Semitic *may-. Compare Aramaic מַיָּא (mayyā), Arabic مَاء (māʾ).

Noun

מַיִם (máyim) m pl (plural construct מֵי־, Biblical Hebrew pausal form מָיִם)

1 (plural only) water

Usage notes

The construct form מֵימֵי־ also occurs.

Descendants

Yiddish: mayem (mayem)

• Dutch: majem

11- the water

למים

١٠  لْـمَاء

See 10

It is useful to add a reference that may shed a little bit of light not only on the difference between (  מים ) and (  למים ), but also on the significance of the use of the noun (  מים )  in its plural form rather than using the singular form indicating water (  מי ) = [may].

http://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/m/m-y-mfin.html#.WEFPFnesOl0

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