Reading into Matthew Chapter V

The Beatitudes

Matthew 5:1-2

1Now when Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2and he began to teach them. He said:

Comments 5:1-2

Now, this seems to be a continuation of Matthew 4.  We saw at the end of the previous chapter that Jesus was teaching in synagogs all over Galilee and that people came to seek healing from everywhere.

In these two verses though, it seemed as though Jesus has not headed for the crowd but deliberately climbed the top of the mountain to avoid them. In this chapter, there is no biblical evidence that He spoke to the public because He was out of reach and probably out of sight too.  However, we know that in chapter 7, after He has finished and went down the mountain, Matthew said the crowd  marvelled at his teaching. Therefore, since I believe all these chapters are connected, I, then, conclude that Jesus climbed the side of the mountain in order to give the crowd a sermon, while teaching his disciples at the same time.

 

Matthew 1-2

3“Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Comments:

Who are the poor in spirit? What does it mean to be poor in spirit?

http://biblehub.com/commentaries/matthew/5-3.htm

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary:  5:3-12 …The poor in spirit are happy. These bring their minds to their condition, when it is a low condition. They are humble and lowly in their own eyes. They see their want, bewail their guilt, and thirst after a Redeemer. The kingdom of grace is of such; the kingdom of glory is for them.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible: To be poor in spirit is to have a humble opinion of ourselves; to be sensible that we are sinners, and have no righteousness of our own; to be willing to be saved only by the rich grace and mercy of God; to be willing to be where God places us, to bear what he lays on us, to go where he bids us, and to die when he commands; to be willing to be in his hands, and to feel that we deserve no favor from him. It is opposed to pride, and vanity, and ambition.

http://st-takla.org/pub_Bible-Interpretations/Holy-Bible-Tafsir-02-New-Testament/Father-Antonious-Fekry/01-Engeel-Matta/Tafseer-Engil-Mata__01-Chapter-05.html

متى 5 – تفسير إنجيل متى

طوبى للمساكين بالروح لأن لهم ملكوت السماوات.

المساكين بالروح = ليسوا هم المعتازين ماديًا ولكن هم من يشعرون بفقرهم الشديد بدون الله، ويشعرون بحاجتهم لله، وأنه كل شيء لهم لذلك فهم يطلبونه بانسحاق شديد، وهذا هو مفهوم الاتضاع، وهؤلاء يرفعهم الله لملكوته ويسكن عندهم (أش 15:57). الكبرياء يسقطنا من الملكوتكما أسقط أبونا آدم أما والاتضاع يرفعنا إليه. والاتضاع والمسكنة بالروح ضد مفاهيم الفريسيين. فالمسيح يُغَيِّر هنا المفاهيم الخاطئة. المسكين بالروح يشعر في داخله أنه لا يستحق شيئًا وأنه ضعيف وخاطئ، وقلبه مثل لسانه أي لا يدَّعى هذا. وهذا ما جعل بطرس يقول للسيد أخرج من سفينتي يا رب لأني رجل خاطئ (لو5: 8) إذ وجد نفسه غير مستحق لوجود الرب في سفينته. أما المتكبر فهو دائمًا يشعر أن الله ظلمه إذ أنه كان يستحق أكثر. هذه المسكنة بالروح فيها حماية من السقوط لذلك كانت نصيحة رب المجد لنا ” إن فعلتم كل ما أمرتم به فقولوا إننا عبيد بطالون” (لو17: 10). ونلاحظ أن التواضع كان أول التطويبات فهو الأساس لكل فضيلة.

Matthew 5: 4

4Blessed are those who mourn,

for they will be comforted.

Comment:

Source: http://biblehub.com/commentaries/matthew/5-4.htm

Ellicott’s Commentary for English ReadersThey that mourn.—The verb is commonly coupled with weeping (Mark 16:10; Luke 6:25; James 4:9; Revelation 18:15-19). Here, as before, there is an implied, though not an expressed, limitation. The “mourning” is not the sorrow of the world that worketh “death” (2Corinthians 7:10) for failure, suffering, and the consequences of sin, but the sorrow which flows out in the tears that cleanse, the mourning over sin itself and the stain which it has left upon the soul.

They shall be comforted.—The pronoun is emphatic. The promise implies the special comfort (including counsel) which the mourner needs; “comforted” he shall be with the sense of pardon and peace, of restored purity and freedom. We cannot separate the promise from the word which Christendom has chosen (we need not now discuss its accuracy) to express the work of the Holy Ghost the Comforter, still less from the yearning expectation that then prevailed among such of our Lord’s hearers as were looking for the “consolation”—i.e., the “comfort”—of Israel (Luke 2:25)

Benson CommentaryBlessed [or happy] are they that mourn — Namely, for their own sins and those of other men, and are steadily and habitually serious, watchful, and circumspect; for they shall be comforted — Even in this world, with the consolation that arises from a sense of the forgiveness of sins, peace with God, clear discoveries of his favour, and well-grounded, lively hopes of the heavenly inheritance, and with the full enjoyment of that inheritance itself in the world to come.

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary: Those that mourn are happy. That godly sorrow which worketh true repentance, watchfulness, a humble mind, and continual dependence for acceptance on the mercy of God in Christ Jesus, with constant seeking the Holy Spirit, to cleanse away the remaining evil, seems here to be intended. Heaven is the joy of our Lord; a mountain of joy, to which our way is through a vale of tears. Such mourners shall be comforted by their God.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible: Blessed are they that mourn – Compare 2 Corinthians 7:10. At the same time, it is true that the gospel only can give true comfort to those in affliction, Isaiah 61:1-3; Luke 4:18. Other sources of consolation do not reach the deep sorrows of the soul. They may blunt the sensibilities of the mind; they may produce a sullen and reluctant submission to what we cannot help: but they do not point to the true source of comfort. In the God of mercy only; in the Saviour; in the peace that flows from the hope of a better world, and there only, is there consolation, 2 Corinthians 3:17-18; 2 Corinthians 5:1. Those that mourn thus shall be comforted. So those that grieve over sin; that sorrow that they have committed it, and are afflicted and wounded that they have offended God, shall find comfort in the gospel. Through the merciful Saviour those sins may be forgiven. In him the weary and heavy-ladened soul shall find peace Matthew 11:28-30; and the presence of the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, shall sustain them here John 14:26-27, and in heaven all their tears shall be wiped away, Revelation 21:4.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary: 4. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted—This “mourning” must not be taken loosely for that feeling which is wrung from men under pressure of the ills of life, nor yet strictly for sorrow on account of committed sins. Evidently it is that entire feeling which the sense of our spiritual poverty begets; and so the second beatitude is but the complement of the first. The one is the intellectual, the other the emotional aspect of the same thing. It is poverty of spirit that says, “I am undone”; and it is the mourning which this causes that makes it break forth in the form of a lamentation—”Woe is me! for I am undone.” Hence this class are termed “mourners in Zion,” or, as we might express it, religious mourners, in sharp contrast with all other sorts (Isa 61:1-3; 66:2). Religion, according to the Bible, is neither a set of intellectual convictions nor a bundle of emotional feelings, but a compound of both, the former giving birth to the latter. Thus closely do the first two beatitudes cohere. The mourners shall be “comforted.” Even now they get beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness. Sowing in tears, they reap even here in joy. Still, all present comfort, even the best, is partial, interrupted, short-lived. But the days of our mourning shall soon be ended, and then God shall wipe away all tears from our eyes. Then, in the fullest sense, shall the mourners be “comforted.”

شرح الكتاب المقدس – العهد الجديد – القس أنطونيوس فكري (بتحوير)

الحزانى= لا يقصد الذي يحزن لضياع ماله أو ممتلكاته فهذا حزن باطل، بل من يحزن على خطاياه ويحيا حياة التوبة.

  هو كذلك من يبكي على خطايا الآخرين ويحزن على هلاكهم.

هؤلاء حزنهم مقدس والله يحوله لفرح روحي (يو 22:16 + 2كو 10:7). فمن يزرعه بالدموع يحصد بالابتهاج (مز 5:126) = لأنهم يتعزون.

Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the meek,

for they will inherit the earth.

Comment:

Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers: (5) The meek.—The word so rendered was probably used by St. Matthew in its popular meaning, without any reference to the definition which ethical writers had given of it, but it may be worth while to recall Aristotle’s account of it (Eth. Nicom.v. 5) as the character of one who has the passion of resentment under control, and who is therefore tranquil and untroubled, as in part determining the popular use of the word, and in part also explaining the beatitude.

Benson Commentary: Persons of a mild, gentle, long-suffering, and forgiving disposition, who are slow to anger, and averse from wrath; not easily provoked, and if at any time at all provoked, soon pacified; who never resent an injury, nor return evil for evil; but make it their care to overcome evil with good; who by the sweetness, affability, courteousness, and kindness of their disposition, endeavour to reconcile such as may be offended, and to win them over to peace and love.

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary: The meek are happy. The meek are those who quietly submit to God; who can bear insult; are silent, or return a soft answer; who, in their patience, keep possession of their own souls, when they can scarcely keep possession of anything else.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible: The meek – Meekness is patience in the reception of injuries. It is neither meanness nor a surrender of our rights, nor cowardice; but it is the opposite of sudden anger, of malice, of long-harbored vengeance. Christ insisted on his right when he said, “If I have done evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why smitest thou me?” John 18:23. Paul asserted his right when he said, “They have beaten us openly uncondemned, being Romans, and have cast us into prison; and now do they thrust us out privily? nay verily; but let them come themselves, and fetch us out,” Acts 16:37. And yet Christ was the very model of meekness. It was one of his characteristics, “I am meek,” Matthew 11:29. So of Paul. No man endured more wrong, or endured it more patiently than he. Yet the Saviour and the apostle were not passionate. They bore all patiently. They did not press their rights through thick and thin, or trample down the rights of others to secure their own.

Meekness is the reception of injuries with a belief that God will vindicate us. “Vengeance is his; he will repay,” Romans 12:19. It little becomes us to take his place, and to do what he has promised to do.

Meekness produces peace. It is proof of true greatness of soul. It comes from a heart too great to be moved by little insults. It looks upon those who offer them with pity. He that is constantly ruffled; that suffers every little insult or injury to throw him off his guard and to raise a storm of passion within, is at the mercy of every mortal that chooses to disturb him. He is like “the troubled sea that cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.”

آية (5):-

طوبى للودعاء لأنهم يرثون الأرض.

الودعاء = مرة أخرى لاحظ الترتيب، فالحزين على خطاياه، حزنه يصقله ويصير وديعا، هو في خجل من خطاياه الشخصية يغفر للآخرين. الودعاء هم ذوى القلوب المتسعة البسيطة التي تحتمل إساءات الآخرين، ولا تقاوم الشر بالشر، هم الذين في ثقة في مسيحهم يقابلون من يعاديهم بابتسامة وديعة، لا تربكهم إساءات الآخرين فيفقدوا سلامهم، ليس عن ضعف (فالمسيح القوى كان وديعًا)، بل ثقة في قوة المسيح

Matthew 5: 6 “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled.

Comment:

Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers: That, instead of desiring the possessions of others, and endeavouring to obtain them by violence or deceit; and instead of coveting this world’s goods, sincerely, earnestly, and perseveringly desire universal holiness of heart and life, or deliverance from all sinful dispositions and practices, and a complete restoration of their souls to the image of God in which they were created: a just and beautiful description this of that fervent, constant, increasing, restless, and active desire; of that holy ardour and vehemence of soul in pursuit of the most eminent degrees of universal goodness which will end in complete satisfaction: For they shall be filled — Shall obtain the righteousness which they hunger and thirst for, and be abundantly satisfied therewith.

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary: Righteousness is here put for all spiritual blessings. These are purchased for us by the righteousness of Christ, confirmed by the faithfulness of God. Our desires of spiritual blessings must be earnest. Though all desires for grace are not grace, yet such a desire as this, is a desire of God’s own raising, and he will not forsake the work of his own hands.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary: …As hunger and thirst are the keenest of our appetites, our Lord, by employing this figure here, plainly means “those whose deepest cravings are after spiritual blessings.” And in the Old Testament we find this craving variously expressed: “Hearken unto Me, ye that follow after righteousness, ye that seek the Lord” (Isa 51:1); “I have waited for Thy salvation, O Lord,” exclaimed dying Jacob (Ge 49:18); “My soul,” says the sweet Psalmist, “breaketh for the longing that it hath unto Thy judgments at all times”

Matthew Poole’s Commentary: You see many men and women hungering and thirsting after sensual satisfactions, or after sensible enjoyments; these are unhappy, miserable men, they often hunger and thirst, and are not satisfied: but I will show you a more excellent way, a more excellent object of your hunger and thirst, that is, righteousness; both a righteousness wherein you may stand before God, which is in me, Jeremiah 23:6, and is revealed from faith to faith, Romans 1:17, and the righteousness of a holy life. Those are blessed men, who first seek the kingdom of heaven, and the righteousness thereof, God will fill these men with what they desire, Isaiah 55:1,2 Lu 1:53.

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible: after righteousness; by which is meant, not justice and equity, as persons oppressed and injured; nor a moral, legal righteousness, which the generality of the Jewish nation were eagerly pursuing; but the justifying righteousness of Christ, which is imputed by God the Father, and received by faith. To “hunger and thirst” after this, supposes a want of righteousness, which is the case of all men; a sense of want of it, which is only perceived by persons spiritually enlightened; a discovery of the righteousness of Christ to them, which is made in the Gospel, and by the Spirit of God; a value for it, and a preference of it to all other righteousness; and an earnest desire after it, to be possessed of it, and found in it; and that nothing can be more grateful than that, because of its perfection, purity, suitableness, and use: happy souls are these.

آية (6):-

طوبى للجياع والعطاش إلى البر لأنهم يشبعون.

الجياع والعطاش إلى البر= نلاحظ الترتيب فالتطويب حتى الآن كان لنفس متضعة سكن فيها الله ورأت خطاياها فحزنت، وحول الله حزنها فرح، وبدأ المسيح يشفيها من شراستها فتغيرت طبيعتها. مثل هذه النفس قطعًا ستشتاق للمزيد، والبر هنا هو بر المسيح، فهو صار لنا برًا من الله. وطوبى لمن يشتاق أن يشبع من الله، طوبى لمن يجوع للطعام الروحي أي معرفة الله ومعرفة المسيح. وكما أن الجوع الجسدي علامة صحة، فالجوع الروحي علامة صحة روحية. ومعرفة الله والمسيح حياة (يو 3:17)، كما أن الشبع بالطعام يعطى حياة للجسد. ومن يجوع ويعطش لله يشبعه الله ويرويه، يعطيه الله الروح القدس ليثبته في المسيح ويُعَرِّفَه المسيح ويشبعه بالمسيح (يو 37:7-39) هكذا صرخ المرنم ” كما يشتاق الأيل إلى جداول المياه هكذا تشتاق نفسي إليك يا الله (مز 1:42) + ” أرفع يدىَّ فتشبع نفسي كما من شحم ودسم” (مز63: 4، 5). فالحب الإلهي مشبع للنفس. والحياة هي رحلة نحو الكمال، والكمال هو بدون حدود. الجوع والعطش إلى الله هو شعور دائم بالاحتياج لله وللامتلاء به. ومن تذوق هذه المتعة يقول لكل إنسان مع المرنم “ذوقوا وانظروا ما أطيب الرب” (مز 34: 8).

7Blessed are the merciful,

for they will be shown mercy.

8Blessed are the pure in heart,

for they will see God.

Comment:

Matthew Poole’s Commentary: The men of the world bless those who appear pure and holy to men, and put on a vizard and mask of purity, though they be but painted sepulchres, and their hearts be as cages of all unclean birds: but those alone are blessed, who, being washed from their filthiness by my blood, are of a sincere and upright heart; though they be not legally pure and free from all sin, yet are so pure as that God will accept them, the bent of their hearts being after holiness; who have not a heart and a heart, no doubleness of mind, who are persons in whom is no guile. For though no mortal eye can see and comprehend the essence of God, yet these men shall by an eye of faith see and enjoy God in this life, though in a glass more darkly, and in the life to come face to face, and as he is, 1 Corinthians 13:12 Hebrews 12:14; 1Jo 3:2.

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible: Blessed are the pure in heart,…. Not in the head; for men may have pure notions and impure hearts; not in the hand, or action, or in outward conversation only; so the Pharisees were outwardly righteous before men, but inwardly full of impurity; but “in heart”. The heart of man is naturally unclean; nor is it in the power of man to make it clean, or to be pure from his sin; nor is any man in this life, in such sense, so pure in heart, as to be entirely free from sin. This is only true of Christ, angels, and glorified saints: but such may be said to be so, who, though they have sin dwelling in them, are justified from all sin, by the righteousness of Christ, and are “clean through the word”, or sentence of justification pronounced upon them, on the account of that righteousness; whose iniquities are all of them forgiven, and whose hearts are sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, which cleanses from all sin; and who have the grace of God wrought in their hearts, which, though as yet imperfect, it is entirely pure; there is not the least spot or stain of sin in it: and such souls as they are in love with, so they most earnestly desire after more purity of heart, lip, life, and conversation.

And happy they are, for they shall see God; in this life, enjoying communion with him, both in private and public, in the several duties of religion, in the house and ordinances of God; where they often behold his beauty, see his power and his glory, and taste, and know, that he is good and gracious: and in the other world, where they shall see God in Christ, with the eyes of their understanding; and God incarnate, with the eyes of their bodies, after the resurrection; which sight of Christ, and God in Christ, will be unspeakably glorious, desirable, delightful, and satisfying; it will be free from all darkness and error, and from all interruption; it will be an appropriating and transforming one, and will last for ever.

Ellicott’s Commentary for English ReadersPure in heart.—Here, as with the poor in spirit, the noun determines the region in which the purity is to be found—the “heart” as representing desires and affections, as the “spirit” represents the will and higher personality. The purity so described is not that which was the ideal of the Pharisee, outward and ceremonial, nor, again, was it limited, as the common language of Christians too often limits it, to the absence of one special form of sensual sin; but it excluded every element of baseness—the impurity of hate or greed of gain, no less than that of lust. Not without cause, however, has the evil of the latter sin so overshadowed the others that it has almost monopolised the name. No single form of evil spreads its taint more deeply than that which “lets in contagion to the inward parts.”

Benson Commentary: Those whose hearts are purified by faith; who are not only sprinkled from an evil conscience by the blood of Jesus, but cleansed by the Spirit of God from vain thoughts, unprofitable reasonings, earthly and sensual desires, and corrupt passions; who are purified from pride, self-will, discontent, impatience, anger, malice, envy, covetousness, ambition; whose hearts are circumcised to love the Lord their God with all their hearts, and their neighbours as themselves, and who, therefore, are not only upright before him, but possess and maintain purity of intention and of affection in all their designs, works, and enjoyments; serving him continually with a single eye and an undivided heart.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible:  That is, whose minds, motives, and principles are pure; who seek not only to have the external actions correct, but who desire to be holy in heart, and who are so. Man looks on the outward appearance, but God looks on the heart.

9Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. 10Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

آية (8):-

طوبى لأنقياء القلب لأنهم يعاينون الله.

أنقياء القلب= نحن أمام نفس يتعامل معها الله، حولها للوداعة وتشبهت به فصارت رحيمة، وماذا بعد؟ كيف نرتقى لدرجة أعلى؟

ينقى الله القلب فيصبح بسيط، والبسيط عكس المركب، أي أن القلب البسيط له هدف واحد، لا ينقسم بين محبة الله ومحبة العالم، يصبح هذا القلب غير محباً للخطية. وأصل كلمة النقاوة في اليونانية تشير للغسل والتطهير كإزالة الأوساخ من الملابس، وتعنى أيضاً تنقية ما هو صالح مما هو ردئ كفصل الحنطة عن التبن هكذا قلب المؤمن، يغسله ربنا يسوع المسيح بدمه من كل شائبة. الخطية كأنها طين على العينين تعميهما عن رؤية الله. وبالتوبة يزول هذا الطين فـ يعاينون الله = هذه لا تعنى أننا نرى الله بصورة مجسمة، فالله فوق الحواس بل أن من تطهر من حب الخطية تنفتح بصيرته الداخلية بل حواسه الداخلية كلها فيرى ويسمع ويتذوق= فيعاين الله، فحين يقول داود النبي “تأملت فرأيت الرب أمامى في كل حين إنه عن يمينى لكي لا أتزعزع” (مز35: 10) فهل رأى داود الرب عيانا ؟! قطعا لا، إنما كان هذا بإيمان قوى يصل لدرجة أنه كما لو كان بالعيان، فيها يكون شاعراً دائما بحماية الله ومساندته له. نحن نعاينه هنا على الأرض بالإيمان أما في السماء فسيكون هذا عيانا. فالخطية هي التي تحجب رؤية الله، وبدون قداسة لن يرى أحد الرب (عب 14:12). الله يُرى ويُحَّس ويُحَّبْ بالقلب إذا تصفى من شوائب محبة العالم والخطية. أمّا من يعيش للخطية يصبح قلبه غليظاً لا يشعر ولا يُحِّب الرب. لذلك هتف داود “قلباً نقياً إخلقه فىَّ يا الله”. مثل هذا الإنسان الذي له القلب البسيط يقال عنه أيضاً أن له عين بسيطة لا تبحث إلاّ عماّ هو لله، هذا الإنسان يكون جسده كله نيراً، أي يكون نوراً للعالم يرى الناس الله من خلاله فالله نور. وهذه يصل لها من يقمع جسده وأهواءه ويضبط شهواته ويصلب نفسه عن العالم.

11“Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. 12Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

Salt and Light

13“You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled underfoot.

Comment:

Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers: (13) Ye are the salt of the earth.—The words are spoken to the disciples in their ideal character, as the germ of a new Israel, called to a prophetic work, preserving the earth from moral putrescence and decay. The general reference to this antiseptic action of salt is (as in Colossians 4:6, and possibly in the symbolic act of Elisha, 2Kings 2:21) enough to give an adequate meaning to the words, but the special reference to the sacrificial use of salt in Mark 9:49 (see Note there) makes it probable enough that there was some allusion to that thought also here.

Benson Commentary: Not the apostles, not ministers only; but all who possess and manifest the graces spoken of in the preceding verses, and are truly holy and righteous; are the salt of the earth — Appointed to be the means of preventing or curing the growth of that corruption which prevails in the world, and of seasoning men’s minds with wisdom and grace. But if the salt have lost its savour — Or, be grown insipid, and therefore want seasoning itself, wherewith shall it be salted — By what means can its lost virtue be restored? The word μωρανθη, rendered have lost its savour, has peculiar strength and beauty, and is literally, be infatuated, or, grown foolish, “alluding,” says Dr. Doddridge, “to the common figure, in which sense and spirit are expressed by salt.” It is thenceforth good for nothing— It is wholly useless, and left to be thrown out of doors, and trampled on by men as the common dirt in the streets: “thus worthless and contemptible will you, my disciples, be, even in the most eminent stations, if you lose your character for real and vital religion.” The following passage of Mr. Maundrell, quoted by Dr. Macknight, illustrates our Lord’s supposition of salt’s losing its savour. In the valley of Salt, near Gebul, and about four hours’ journey from Aleppo, there is a small precipice, occasioned by the continual taking away of the salt. “In this,” says he, “you may see how the veins of it lie; I brake a piece off it, of which the part that was exposed to the rain, sun, and air, though it had the sparks and particles of salt, yet it had perfectly lost its savour. The innermost part, which had been connected to the rock, retained its savour, as I found by proof.”

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary: 5:13-16 Ye are the salt of the earth. Mankind, lying in ignorance and wickedness, were as a vast heap, ready to putrify; but Christ sent forth his disciples, by their lives and doctrines to season it with knowledge and grace. If they are not such as they should be, they are as salt that has lost its savour. If a man can take up the profession of Christ, and yet remain graceless, no other doctrine, no other means, can make him profitable. Our light must shine, by doing such good works as men may see. What is between God and our souls, must be kept to ourselves; but that which is of itself open to the sight of men, we must study to make suitable to our profession, and praiseworthy. We must aim at the glory of God.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible: Ye are the salt of the earth – Salt renders food pleasant and palatable, and preserves from putrefaction. So Christians, by their lives and instructions, are to keep the world from entire moral corruption. By bringing down the blessing of God in answer to their prayers, and by their influence and example, they save the world from universal vice and crime.

Salt have lost its savour – That is, if it has become tasteless, or has lost its preserving properties. The salt used in this country is a chemical compound – chloride of sodium – and if the saltness were lost, or it were to lose its savor, there would be nothing remaining. It enters into the very nature of the substance.

آية 13:-

انتم ملح الأرض ولكن أن فسد الملح فبماذا يملح لا يصلح بعد لشيء إلا لان يطرح خارجا ويداس من الناس.

صفات الملح 1) يعطى طعمًا ويبرز نكهة الطعام لو ذاب بكمية معقولة.

     2) يحفظ بعض الأطعمة من الفساد.

     3) نقى وأبيض.

وبهذا التشبيه فالسيد المسيح يدعو المؤمنين للذوبان في المجتمع، فالطبيعة البشرية فسدت وفقدت نكهتها بسبب الخطية. وعلى المؤمنين أن يعيشوا بحياتهم النقية (بيضاء كالملح) وسط المجتمع. وهم قادرون بالمسيح الذي فيهم أن يؤثروا فيمن حولهم ويكونوا قدوة، وبهذا يتقدس العالم ويمتنع عنه الفساد. ولكن على المؤمنين أن يذوبوا في حياة الآخرين باعتدال فلا يفقدوهم شخصياتهم ومواهبهم (كمن يضع كمية كبيرة من الملح في الطعام فتفسده). أما لو فسد الملح لصار خطرًا وبيلًا على من يستعمله، والقدوة لو فسدت فأثرها لا يُطاق كالملح الفاسد. ولذلك طلب السيد المسيح من الآب ألاّ يأخذهم من العالم بل أن يحفظهم من الشرير (يو15:17) فهم لهم عملهم ودورهم كملح للعالم.والله كان لن يحرق سدوم لو وجد فيها عشرة أبرار. وهناك ملح فاسد وهذا يداس مثل شاول الملك، وهناك ملح قد اتسخ وهذا يُنقى بالتوبة مثل داود. لهذا جاء المسيح ولنلاحظ أن ناثان النبي حين قال لداود الرب نقل عنك خطيتك(2صم12: 13) فهو نقلها لحساب المسيح، ليحملها المسيح بدلاً منه يوم صليبه.

14“You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill cannot be hidden. 15Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house. 16In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven.

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