Hebrew Vowels – Nikud Taberni Or Niqqud

Introduction

Hello everyone!

שָׁלוֹם לְכוּלַם !

Shalom lekulam!

In this page, we will learn how to use Nikud. But before that, let’s look at the background information of this vowel system.


Hebrew Vowels are run by a system based on small lines and dots put in different positions and places around Hebrew letters. This means that in the Hebrew language, to breath after a consonant does not require adding letters written on lines like consonants. In actual fact, we find all the European vowels in Hebrew [a], [e], [o], [u] written in the form of special markings that are added on or below the consonant.

These vowels are based on an ancient system studied in the Jewish Bible called “Nikud Taberni” meaning; “the method of vowels.”

There are many forms of nikud for each given vowel sound.

 

 

Hebrew has five distinct vowel sounds:

[a]

[e]

[e]

[i]

[u]

[o]

as in (cat)

as in (bed)

as in (bed)

as in (eep)

as in (toot)

as in (bog)

N.B: [bo] or [do] is pronounced like  (dog), not  like (doe) or (do.)

We will use the Letter “א” (alef) to carry the vowel.

 

Cholam chaser  or Maleh א   Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 22.18.18.png

It sounds like the letter “o” – Over – Robe – [oʊ]

  Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 21.19.51.png  or Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 21.26.57.png

Example: e7e4afd33998bf0e1dc44e54fac8e8d2.png  It sounds like “o

This vowel is used only on a consonant:

It sounds like “o” in English.

When we use a Cholam Maleh, the consonant e.g. “Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 21.19.51.png”   operates as a vowel letter.

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 20.55.08.png

 

 

Shin and Sin

1- Shinשׁ

Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 21.08.01.png

When using this vowel, the letter “ש” is pronounced as “sh”.

2- Sinשׂ

Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 21.08.09.png

When using this vowel, the letter “ש” is pronounced as “s”.

 

 

Shuruk 

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 23.27.23.png  “u” like [oo]

This vowel is used only on the letter “ו” (vav).   It sounds like “u” in English. [oo] – [u:] – Food, Blue

When we use the Shuruk, the letter “ו” operates as a vowel letter (like in Arabic [w – و ].

“The Shuruk is the letter Vav with a dot in the middle and to the left of it. The dot is identical to the grammatically different signs Dagesh and Mappiq, but in a fully vocalized text it is practically impossible to confuse them: Shuruk itself is a vowel sign, so if the letter before the Waw doesn’t have its own vowel sign, then the Waw with the dot is a Shuruk and otherwise it is a Waw with a Dagesh or a Mappiq. Furthermore, the Mappiq only appears at the end of the word and only in the letter He (ה) in modern Hebrew and in the Bible it sometimes appears in Aleph (א) and only in some Bible manuscripts it appears in the letter Waw, for example in the word גֵּוּ (‘torso’) [ɡev]Compare for example Waw with Dagesh in מְגֻוָּן [məɡuvˈvan] ‘varied’ (without niqqud: מגוון) as opposed to Shuruk in מִגּוּן [miɡˈɡun] ‘protection’ (without niqqud: מיגון); see also orthographic variants of Waw.” wikipedia

 

 

Dagesh – in Hebrew it means “emphasis”  التضعيف 

The dot is in the middle of the consonant.

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 23.19.19.png –  תּ – Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 23.21.49.png– 

The Dagesh either is used for emphasis (to double the sound) or to alter the sound (make it thicker).

With nikud, you use a dot in the middle of the letter to signify emphasis. There are only six letters that can use this emphasis, although some of these letters no longer have differences in pronunciation between the emphasized and non-emphasized forms in modern Hebrew – for example, “ג”, “ד” and “ת” can use emphasis but are pronounced the same with or without emphasis.

For letters that do change their pronunciation, the emphasis makes the “plosive” version of the consonant (which is the one you make with your lips or throat that you can’t sustain e.g. “b”, for example, you can make the noise vvvvvvvv but not bbbbbbbb).

Examples:

פּ – p (without Dagesh we read it “f”)

כּ – k (without Dagesh we read it “ch” – like in “Bach”)

בּ – b (without Dagesh we read it “v”)

A little rule – when the letters “ב” , “ג” , “ד” , “כ” ,“פ” and “ת” come at the beginning of a word, they will be always emphasized. If the come at the middle or end, they usually won’t be.

 

 

Chirik or Hireq [אִ]

 

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.05.59.png

It is a dot under the consonant. We pronounce it in two different ways:

1-Short as [i]; e.g. שִ – Shi – וִ – Vi – רִ – Ri

2-Long as [ee]. [i:] – see – heat

 

Shva  or shewa [אְ]  

 shva-bookstyle.gif  [é] as in telephone / OR / silent

It is the semi-column [:] under the consonant.  We pronounce it in two different ways:

1-A vocal Shewa pronounced as  [é] as in telephone.   Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 22.57.26.png

This is usually found at the beginning of words; e.g. שְ – She – מְ – Me – רְ – Re –

2- A Shewa is silent when it is preceded such as ketah, segol and Qubutts.


 

Tsira and Segol

1- Tsira – [אֵ]

– אֵ.png[ey] or [ay]

It is two dots underneath the letter and it’s pronounced as [ey] or [ay] like in (bay)

To hear the vowel pronounced, go to youtube, and type three times the letter W followed by a DOT then type the word YOUTUBE and COM, then insert the extension:  /watch?v=bMXi6Kr9wjE

Segol – אֶ 

It is pronounced like the French letter “è” or “ê” – [ɛ]

 

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.03.10.png

 

 


Kamatz and Hatuf

1-Kamatz – אָ  

There a few ways to pronounce Kamatz. [a:h] – [ah]  – [o]

a- Kamatz Hatuf

 

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 22.28.31.png

 

 

 

 

Screenshot 2019-01-24 at 16.09.18.png     Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 20.45.27.pngThis is a long [ah] sound like in (army)  or (father)

This sound may be found in slightly different variations, and depending on the type of words, may also sound differently.

 

 

b- Kamatz Patach – אַ

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 20.42.52.png This is a shorter [ah] sound like in (mother)

 

 

c- Qamets Hatuf

 

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.13.28.png

Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 22.37.24.png

 

d- Qamatz Qatan /O:/ 

[o:] like in all

QamatzQatan1.png[ko:]

The way Qamatz Qatan is written can vary:

We have the following example:

Screenshot 2019-02-03 at 22.37.46.png

 

Kubutz  אֻ  Or Qibbuts

Kubutuz.png [u] ruler

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.19.26.png

It sounds like the letter “u” in boo.

 


The Chataf

The Chataf is two dots that look like the Shva which are placed next to another vowel, and has the effect of shortening the vowel.

We use the Chataf with the Segol, Patach and Kamatz (you can also use it with Chirik, but we won’t teach you about it because it used very rarely).

 

1- Chataf Patachאֲ   

[ə] amuse

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.24.55.png

 

 

2- Chataf Segol

short [a] metallic

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.29.03.png

 

 

3- Chataf Kamatsאֳ

The Chataf Kamatz is pronounced as “o” commit

Screenshot 2019-01-31 at 21.34.04.png


 

Reference:

UTUBE + .com/watch?v=bMXi6Kr9wjE&t=372s

 

 

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